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Ennever & Enever family history & ancestry. Click here to return to the home page WJ Ennever (1869-1947). From the portrait by J Seymour R.A., exhibited in the Royal Academy.

Michael Norman MANLEY

Michael Norman MANLEY

Male 1924 - 1997  (72 years)

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  • Name Michael Norman MANLEY 
    Born 10 Dec 1924  Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Occupation From 2 Mar 1972 to 1 Nov 1980  Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Prime Minister 
    • (b. Jamaica, 10 Dec. 1924; d. 6 March 1997 Jamaican; Prime Minister 1972 – 80, 1989 – 92 The son of Norman Manley, the founder of the People's National Party (PNP) and a "father" of Jamaican independence, Michael Manley entered a political dynasty, becoming leader of the PNP in 1969. He had previously studied economics at the LSE and worked for the BBC in London, organized Jamaican sugar workers in a PNP-run trade union, and been elected to parliament in 1969.

      He led the PNP to victory in the 1972 election and two years later declared himself a democratic socialist, proposing a radical agenda of nationalizations, social reforms, and close ties with Cuba. He introduced legislation on union and women's rights, started a land reform, and spent heavily on health, education, and housing. The PNP was re-elected in 1976 but its second term was characterized by economic crisis and mounting political violence. Manley alleged that the USA and IMF, hostile to his brand of socialism and Third Worldism, destabilized the Jamaican economy, cutting credit, and imposing covert sanctions. The PNP lost the 1980 election to the conservative Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) of Edward Seaga.

      After nine years in opposition, Manley returned to power in 1989, inheriting an even more bankrupt economy. By now he had recanted much of his earlier radicalism, made peace with Washington, and broken with the left-wing faction of the PNP. His government presented itself as pro-business and advocated privatization policies, although maintaining cautious links with Cuba.

      In 1992 Manley retired from the premiership on grounds of ill-health, handing over power to P. J. Patterson. He has subsequently worked as a consultant and has contributed to various regional commissions and organizations.

      Michael Manley (1924-1997) was the leader of the People's National Party of Jamaica, prime minister (1972-1980, 1989-1992), and theoretician for a new International Economic Order. A fiery leftist and critic of the United States in his first two terms, in his third term he was a moderate with close ties to America.

      Michael Norman Manley was born in St. Andrew, Jamaica, on December 10, 1924, the second son of illustrious parents. His father, Norman Washington Manley, was a Rhodes scholar, decorated World War I hero, and the most distinguished legal advocate in the history of Jamaica. In 1938 Norman Manley founded the People's National Party, and he served as premier of Jamaica between 1955 and 1962. Along with his cousin, Alexander Bustamante, the elder Manley was a dominant force in the political system of his c}ountry until his retirement in 1969. Michael Manley's mother, Edna (nee Swithenbank), was an internationally recognized sculptor and patron of the arts

      Manley attended Jamaica College, his father's alma mater, in suburban Saint Andrew parish and in the early 1940s was a writer for the weekly newspaper Public Opinion. He volunteered for service in the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1943 while at McGill University and at the end of the war studied politics, philosophy, and economics at the London School of Economics. Upon graduation he worked as a freelance journalist with the British Broadcasting Service from 1950 to December 1951, when he accepted the invitation to be associate editor of Public Opinion.

      Jamaica in the early 1950s was an exciting place politically. The People's National Party had lost the general elections of 1949 although they gained the largest number of popular votes. More significantly, an irreparable rift had developed between the party and its labor union, culminating in a break in 1952. Manley became a member of the executive committee of the People's National Party in 1952 and helped organize the National Worker's Union, the successor to the Trade's Union Congress dominated by the expelled dissident faction

      In 1953 Manley quit Public Opinion to work full time with the National Worker's Union. He is credited with the rapid expansion of the union not only among sugar workers, the traditional stronghold of the rival Bustamante Industrial Trades Union, but also among elite bauxite and mine workers, as well as urban industrial workers. In 1955 he was elected Island supervisor and first vice president of the National Workers Union, and in 1962, the year he was appointed a senator, he was elected president of the Caribbean Bauxite and Mineworkers Union. Before his formal entry into politics Manley had the reputation of being the foremost union organizer in the Caribbean - an energetic, fearless, dynamic, and gifted leader.

      In the general elections of 1967 Manley won the seat in the House of Representatives for the constituency of Central Kingston, later reclassified as East Central Kingston. Elected leader of the People's National Party in 1969 after the resignation of his father, Manley led the party to victory in 1972.

      Manley's Stormy Years in Office

      Manley's first two terms as prime minister created great controversy and projected his country into international headlines. In an effort to implement his brand of "democratic socialism" he sought to drastically restructure the politics and economy of Jamaica through far-reaching legislation. On the positive side, over 40,000 new housing units were built, free education was made available for all students, new hospitals were established and the infant mortality rate was cut in half. However, the Jamaican economy took a nosedive due to several factors. The price of oil increased nearly ten-fold during Manley's term; the government's purchase of most of the sugar estates resulted in them becoming unproductive white elephants; and many business and professional people, fearing Manley's leftist rhetoric, left the country. As a result, unemployment skyrocketed to thirty percent by 1980.

      In the international sphere, Manley developed closer ties between Jamaica and Fidel Castro's Cuba, and criticized America and other western countries. He sought to lead the Movement of Non-Aligned Nations into the formation of a New International Economic Order against what he considered the exploitation of the West.

      Manley won reelection easily in 1976, but shortly afterwards the island's increasing economic problems forced him to turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). To obtain loans, the prime minister agreed to reduce the value of his country's currency. Unfortunately, this failed to help the economy, while meeting the conditions of the loans hurt the living standards of Jamaicans. By March of 1988, Manley refused to accept the conditions of the IMF for new loans.

      As the economy continued to sour, violence broke out between Manley's supporters and his opponents, driving away visitors and eliminating a major source of revenue from tourism. The 1980 elections were held in an atmosphere of near-civil war, with over 750 dying and thousands being injured in the shootings and stabbings that broke out over the country. In November's elections, Manley and the People's National Party were routed by Ed Seaga and his Jamaican Labor Party, managing to retain only nine out of 60 seats in Parliament.

      Manley Returns to Power

      Just after his defeat, Manley expressed no regrets about his policies, saying "We lost because we challenged the power of the Western economic order. And for that I am unrepentant," quoted in "Seaga Knocks Out the Left," by John Brecher, Newsweek. He also indicated his desire to return to private life. The latter was shortlived, and a new Manley - more moderate than he had been previously - became leader of the opposition. Manley's decision not to contest the December 1983 elections cost him his seat in Parliament, but he continued to be highly-regarded by the Jamaican people. Seaga - never particularly popular - became even more unpopular with his austerity program, and in February of 1989 Manley and the People's National Party won a decisive victory, capturing 44 seats in Parliament. In an interview with Newsweek's Eric Calonius, Manley acknowledged making mistakes in his previous tenure, and said, "The country has evolved, the world has evolved, and we must evolve with it. I think I have evolved."

      In his third term as Prime Minister, Manley followed many of Seaga's policies, although he tended to put greater emphasis on small-scale businesses and increased spending on education. Also, like Seaga, he forged a close relationship with the United States, even supporting President George Bush's proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to reduce tariffs between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In 1990 Manley was diagnosed with cancer, and on March 16th he announced he was stepping down, for reasons of health, from his position as prime minister. In spite of his illness, he led the Commonwealth Observer Mission to oversee the historic 1994 elections in South Africa, which ended apartheid in that country.

      Manley died of prostate cancer March 7th, 1997, in Kingston after having served his country in one form or another for over 40 years. In a letter to the Jamaican Prime Minister, Secretary General of the Commonwealth Emeka Anyaoku called Manley "a statesman of courage and conviction who extended his vision of a better and more just society beyond his island shores" who was "endeared not only to his Commonwealth colleagues but to people so many parts of the world."

      Manley's life boasted many personal and political accomplishments. He was prime minister for three terms and lead the People's National Party for almost a quarter-century. Manley also founded the International Bauxite Association and spearheaded the International Seabed Authority, which both have their headquarters in Kingston, and served as vice-president of the Socialist International for Latin America and the Caribbean in 1978. He also received many awards, including a United Nations special award for his contributions to the struggle against apartheid (1978), the Joliot Curie Medal of the World Peace Council (1979), the Order of the Liberator from Venezuela (1973) and the Order of the Mexican Eagle (1975).

      Further Reading

      Manley is listed in the International Who's Who and Personalities Caribbean; His political career can be gleaned from his writings as well as from Rex Nettleford, Identity, Race and Protest in Jamaica (1971); Carl Stone, Electoral Behaviour and Public Opinion in Jamaica (1974); Manley's tenure as prime minister from 1972-1980 and the 1980 elections were given an overview in "Political Storm Over Jamaica," by Jo Thomas, New York Times Magazine; and the 1980 election results were given in "Seaga Knocks Out the Left," by John Brecher, Newsweek, November 10th, 1980; Interviews with Manley shortly after his 1989 victory are given to Erik Calonius in "A Comeback in Jamaica," Newsweek, February 20th, 1989; and with Hans Massaquoi of Ebony, February, 1990; Manley authored five books: The Politics of Change (1974), A Voice at the Workplace (1976), The Search for Solutions (1977), Jamaica: Struggle in the Periphery (1982), and Up the Down Esculator: Development and the International Economy (Washington, D.C., Howard University Press, 1987). Two biographies of him are Michael Manley: The Making of a Leader by Darrell Levi (Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1990); and Michael Manley: The Great Transformation by David Panton (Kingston Pub. Ltd., 1993).

      Source: www.answers.com
    Michael Norman Manley (1924-1997)
    Michael Norman Manley (1924-1997)
    The front of the One Thousand Dollar features The Honourable Michael Norman Manley, O.M. O.C.C. LL.D. (Hon.) the son of National Hero, Norman Washington Manley and the late Edna Manley, artist and sculptress. Manley was also Prime Minster of Jamaica in 1972, 1976 and 1989. The back features the Jamaica House is located at Hope Road, Kingston and is used, today, mainly as offices of the Prime Minister.
    Occupation From 10 Feb 1989 to 30 Mar 1992  Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Prime Minister 
    Died 6 Mar 1997  89 Old Hope Road, Kingston, Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • Obituary: Michael Manley

      Anthony Payne

      Saturday, 8 March 1997
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      Michael Manley was one of the great figures of modern Third World politics. His standing as an inspirational leader spread beyond his native Jamaica to all parts of the Caribbean and to many other Third World societies as well.
      Manley always saw clearly that the politics of reform which he espoused in Jamaica depended upon associated changes in the wider international economy. This led him to take up articulate and brave, if sometimes foolhardy, positions in the debate about the shaping of a "new international economic order" which brought the plight of the developing world to the centre of the international stage during the course of the 1970s. Less changed than he imagined or hoped, but Manley succeeded nevertheless in stamping something of his huge and vibrant personality on that phase of world history.
      Manley was born into one of Jamaica's leading middle-class families in 1924. His father, Norman, was a brilliant lawyer, destined to found the Jamaican People's National Party (PNP) and to be the island's political leader during the last days of British colonial rule between 1955 and 1962. Manley's mother, Edna, was an equally brilliant artist and sculptress.
      Their second son inherited his considerable intellectual powers and gifts of advocacy from his father, but just as importantly drew from his mother a human sensitivity, a deep integrity and a basic liking of people (of all classes) which marked his own subsequent political career in deeply formative ways.
      He attended Jamaica College, the colony's exclusive secondary school, excelling mostly as an athlete, but showing early signs of his rebellious nature by publicly challenging the authoritarian approach of his headmaster and ultimately resigning from the college. He spent the last years of the Second World War in the Royal Canadian Air Force, before enrolling in late 1945 as a student at the London School of Economics.
      This was a critical phase in Manley's political development. Like so many others, he came under the influence of Harold Laski and began to take on board many of the dominant social democratic ideas of Labour England at that time. Despite the claims of critics from both left and right at different moments in his career, he never really budged from this early ideological grounding.
      After graduating, Manley spent another year in Britain training as a journalist and following the fortunes of the West Indian cricket team. Cricket was always a great love, and for him a defining feature of what it was to be a West Indian, and he later wrote the huge A History of West Indies Cricket (1988).
      By 1952, however, Manley was back in Jamaica and was immediately projected by his father into the key role of union organiser within the PNP- affiliated National Workers' Union (NWU). It was another defining moment for "Young Boy", as Manley came to be dubbed by the sugar workers. Initially a highly nervous public speaker, he grew over the next 20 years of active and successful trade unionism into an impassioned orator. He also came to acquire a deep awareness of the many social and economic ills, above all the deep-rooted inequality, at the heart of Jamaican society.
      When his father retired as PNP leader in 1969, it was thus natural that Manley, already an elected member of the House of Representatives, should succeed him. He sought to articulate the growing disaffection of ordinary black Jamaicans and swept to a dramatic and exciting election victory in 1972. Manley was "Joshua": he epitomised the anger of his people; he defined socialism as "love"; and he set energetically about the task of building a better society for all Jamaicans.
      His politics were those of a radical social democrat, but wisely or unwisely he worked with Marxist elements in Jamaican society and quickly came to be seen from the outside, especially in the United States, as a dangerous "anti- imperialist". At home, his policies were characterised by nationalisation, higher taxation and a commitment to extending literacy; abroad, he befriended Castro, took a leading role in the non-aligned movement and deeply alarmed the Americans.
      However, although there were successes in terms of building popular self- confidence, his populist experiment ended in ultimate failure, the economy broken on the back of disinvestment and IMF-imposed austerity and the society riven by intra-party conflict. The 1980 election, which saw the PNP severely defeated, was marked by great violence.
      In opposition, Manley rebuilt his strength and his nerve and took stock of changing ideas about economic development. In 1988 he was again elected to office, ostensibly as the "new" Manley. He had not changed his basic social goals but he had come to different views as to how they could best be realised. In particular, he had accepted that the private sector, not the state, was the best route to increased economic production, without which there could be no hope of social improvement. In September 1990 he thus turned his party and government firmly in the direction of deregulation and liberalisation.
      By this time, he was beginning to suffer the first serious ill-health that limited him in the last years of his life and in March 1992 he announced that his doctors had advised him that he could no longer carry the physical burden of high office and that he would resign as Jamaican prime minister as soon as his successor could be elected. It was 40 long, gruelling years since he had come home to take up his job with NWU.
      Even in retirement, Manley did not cease to serve his Caribbean. In particular, he responded to a request to "probe" the views of other Caribbean Basin governments on the merits of a proposed new region-wide Association of Caribbean States, with which he was much in sympathy, as a long-standing regionalist.
      Anthony Payne
      Michael Manley's National Workers' Union represented the staff at Radio Jamaica when I took over its management in 1963, writes Graham Binns. We knew of each other, but had not met.
      Shortly after arriving I disciplined an announcer and Manley stormed in to confront me. He was a heroic figure, a tower of a man in an open-necked lumberjack shirt. This was to put me at a disadvantage. Management was wearing suits and ties in those days.
      Despite (or because of) the dramatic style of his arrival I became dramatic myself. When he walked up and down one end of my office making his speech I responded by walking up and down the other end while making mine. Our eyes then met in an unblinking trial of righteousness, but we spoiled the scene. I saw the corner of his mouth quiver as he saw mine. We settled the issue quickly.
      When we negotiated collective agreements on pay and conditions we did so facing each other down the boardroom table. His shop stewards were ranged down one side, my supporting executives down the other. They were all obstinate and inflexible, while he and I were fierce in our arguments.
      But if Manley sensed that deadlock was too close he would suddenly bring, say, the Guernica into his tirade and we would both discuss Picasso, the others looking from one to the other of us like the heads in the advertisement "That's Shell That Was". After one of these artistic breaks we were able to turn back to the consideration of pay and conditions in the mildest of manners.
      The union was the theatre Michael Manley understood best. He was indeed a charismatic political leader, but there were times when his enthusiasm overwhelmed his judgement. Someone with his great style, but well advised, would be a godsend to any country.
      Michael Norman Manley, politician: born St Andrew, Jamaica 19 December 1924; Sugar Supervisor, National Workers' Union 1953-54, Island Supervisor and first Vice-President 1955-72; Member, Jamaican Senate 1962-67, Leader of the Opposition 1969-72, 1980-89, Prime Minister 1972-80, 1989-92; MP for Central Kingston, Jamaica 1967-92; books include The Politics of Change 1974, Jamaica: Struggle in the Periphery 1982, A History of West Indies Cricket 1988, The Poverty of Nations 1991; married 1946 Jacqueline Ramellard (one daughter; marriage dissolved 1951), 1955 Thelma Verity (one son; marriage dissolved 1960), 1966 Barbara Lewars (died 1968; one daughter), 1972 Beverley Anderson (one son, one daughter; marriage dissolved 1990), 1992 Glynne Ewart; died Kingston, Jamaica 6 March 1997.

      Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-michael-manley-1271652.html
    Person ID I7861  3. Jamaican Ennever/ors
    Last Modified 24 Dec 2010 

    Father Norman Washington MANLEY,   Born:  4 Jul 1893, Roxburgh, Manchester, Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location,   Died:  1969  (Age 75 years) 
    Mother Edna SWITHENBANK,   Born:  28 Feb 1900, Buxton, Richmond Wood Road, Bournemouth, Dorset Find all individuals with events at this location,   Died:  1987  (Age 86 years) 
    Married 25 Jun 1921  England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • Norman & Edna were cousins.
    Family ID F2315  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family (spouse) 1 Jacqueline KANELLARDSKI 
    Children 
    +1. Rachel MANLEY
    Family ID F2212  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family (spouse) 2 Thelma VERITY 
    Children 
     1. Joseph MANLEY
    Family ID F2328  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family (spouse) 3 Barbara LEWARS,   Died:  1968 
    Married 1966 
    Children 
     1. Sara MANLEY
    Family ID F2329  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family (spouse) 4 Beverley ANDERSON 
    Children 
     1. Natasha MANLEY
     2. David MANLEY
    Family ID F2330  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family (spouse) 5 Glynne EWART,   Died:  6 Mar 1997, Jamaica Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 1992 
    Family ID F2331  Family Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 10 Dec 1924 - Jamaica Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsOccupation - Prime Minister - From 2 Mar 1972 to 1 Nov 1980 - Jamaica Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsOccupation - Prime Minister - From 10 Feb 1989 to 30 Mar 1992 - Jamaica Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 6 Mar 1997 - 89 Old Hope Road, Kingston, Jamaica Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photographs
    The Most Honourable Michael Manley
    The Most Honourable Michael Manley
    Michael Manley, his wife & President Jimmy Carter
    Michael Manley, his wife & President Jimmy Carter
    Manley and his wife Beverly (formerly Beverly Anderson) with US president Jimmy Carter in 1977.

    Family histories
    Well-known family members
    Well-known family members
    All family members who I have found featured in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography or its Australian equivalent, Who's Who 2008 or with an obituary in The Times.

  • Notes 
    • Michael Norman Manley ON (December 10, 1924 – March 6, 1997) was the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972 – 1980, 1989 – 1992).

      The second son of Jamaica's Premier Norman Manley and Jamaican artist Edna Manley, Michael Manley was a charismatic figure who became the leader of the Jamaican People's National Party a few months before his father's death in 1969.
      Contents
      [hide]

      * 1 Pre-political career
      * 2 Reforms
      * 3 Diplomacy
      * 4 Violence
      * 5 Opposition
      * 6 Re-election
      * 7 Family
      * 8 Retirement and death
      * 9 Sources
      * 10 Notes

      Pre-political career

      He attended Jamaica College and served with the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II. In 1945, he enrolled at the London School of Economics. In 1949, he graduated, and returned to Jamaica to serve as an editor and columnist for the newspaper Public Opinion. At around the same time, he became involved in the trade union movement, and became a negotiator for the National Worker's Union. In August, 1953, he became a full-time official of that union.[1]

      When his father was elected chief minister of Jamaica in 1955, Michael resisted the idea of entering politics, not wanting to be seen as capitalizing on his family name. He eventually relented, however, and accepted an appointment to the Senate of the Parliament of Jamaica in 1962. He later won a very close election to the Jamaican House of Representatives in 1967. After his father's retirement, he became the leader of the People's National Party in 1969. In that capacity, he served as leader of the Opposition until his party won in the general elections of 1972.[1]

      Reforms

      Manley soundly beat the unpopular incumbent Prime Minister Hugh Shearer (his cousin) in the election of 1972 after running on a platform of 'better must come,' giving 'power to the people' and leading 'a government of truth.'

      Manley instituted a series of socio-economic reforms that yielded mixed success. Though he was a biracial Jamaican from an elite family, Manley's successful trade union background helped him to maintain a close relationship with the country's poor, black majority, and he was a dynamic, popular leader. Unlike his father, who had a reputation for being formal and businesslike, the younger Manley moved easily among people of all strata and made Parliament accessible to the people by abolishing the requirement for men to wear jackets and ties to its sittings. In this regard he started a fashion revolution, often preferring the Kariba suit which was a type of formal bush or safari jacket with trousers and worn without a shirt and tie.

      Diplomacy
      Manley and his wife Beverly (formerly Beverly Anderson) with US president Jimmy Carter in 1977.

      Manley developed close friendships with several foreign leaders, foremost of whom were Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Olof Palme of Sweden, Pierre Trudeau of Canada and Fidel Castro of Cuba. With Cuba just 145 km (90 miles) north of Jamaica, he strengthened diplomatic relations between the two island nations, much to the dismay of United States policymakers.

      At the 1979 meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement, Manley strongly pressed for the development of what was called a natural alliance between the Non-aligned movement and the Soviet Union to battle imperialism. In his speech he said, 'All anti-imperialists know that the balance of forces in the world shifted irrevocably in 1917 when there was a movement and a man in the October Revolution, and Lenin was the man.' Manley saw Cuba and the Cuban model as having much to offer both Jamaica and the world.

      In diplomatic affairs, Manley believed in respecting the different systems of government of other countries and not interfering in their internal affairs.

      Violence

      Manley was the Prime Minister when Jamaica experienced a significant escalation of its political culture of violence. Supporters of his opponent Edward Seaga and the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) and Manley's People's National Party (PNP) engaged in a bloody struggle which began before the 1976 election and ended when Seaga was installed as Prime Minister in 1980. While the violent political culture was not invented by Seaga or Manley, and had its roots in conflicts between the parties from as early as the beginning of the two-party system in the 1940s, political violence reached unprecedented levels in the 1970s. Indeed, the two elections accompanied by the greatest violence were those (1976 and 1980) in which Seaga was trying to unseat Manley.

      Violence flared in January 1976 in anticipation of elections. A State of Emergency was declared by Manley's party the PNP in June and 500 people, including some prominent members of the JLP, were accused of trying to overthrow the government and were detained, without charges, in a specially created prison at the Up-Park Camp military headquarters [2]. Elections were held on 15 December that year, while the state of emergency was still in effect. The PNP was returned to office. The State of Emergency continued into the next year. Extraordinary powers granted the police by the Suppression of Crime Act of 1974 continued to the end of the 1980s.

      Violence continued to blight political life in the 1970s. Gangs armed by both parties fought for control of urban constituencies. In the election year of 1980 around 800 Jamaicans were killed. While the murder rate in Jamaica has long been high, Jamaicans were particularly shocked by the violence at that time.

      In the 1980 elections, Seaga's JLP won and he became Prime Minister.

      Opposition

      As Leader of the Opposition Manley became an outspoken critic of the new conservative administration. He strongly opposed intervention in Grenada after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop was overthrown and executed. Immediately after committing Jamaican troops to Ronald Reagan's invasion of Grenada in 1983, Seaga called a snap election – two years early – on the pretext that Dr Paul Robertson, General Secretary of the PNP, had called for his resignation. Manley, who may have been taken by surprise by the maneuver, led his party in a boycott of the elections, and so the Jamaica Labour Party won all seats in parliament against only marginal opposition in six of the sixty electoral constituencies.

      During his period of opposition in the 1980s, Manley, a compelling speaker, travelled extensively, speaking to audiences around the world. He taught a graduate seminar and gave a series of public lectures at Columbia University in New York.

      In the 1980s a Judicial Enquiry, the Smith Commission, was held on the 1976 State of Emergency. Manley admitted that he declared it on evidence that was manufactured to help him win the forthcoming election.

      In 1986 Manley travelled to Britain and visited Birmingham. He attended a number of venues including the Afro Caribbean Resource Centre in Winson Green and Digbeth Civic Hall. The mainly black audiences turned out en masse to hear Manley speak.

      Re-election

      By 1989 Manley had softened his socialist rhetoric, explicitly advocating a role for private enterprise. With the fall of the Soviet Union, he also ceased his support for a variety of international causes. In the election of that year he campaigned on a very moderate platform. Seaga's administration had fallen out of favor – both with the electorate and the US – and the PNP was re-elected handily.

      Manley's second term was short and largely uneventful. In 1992, citing health reasons he stepped down as Prime Minister and PNP leader. His former Deputy Prime Minister, Percival Patterson, assumed both offices.

      Family

      Michael Manley had 5 children: Rachel Manley, Joseph Manley, Sarah Manley, Natasha Manley and David Manley.

      Retirement and death

      Manley wrote seven books, including the award-winning A History of West Indies Cricket, in which he discussed the links between cricket and West Indian nationalism.

      Michael Manley died of prostate cancer on 6 March 1997, the same day as another West Indian politician, Cheddi Jagan of Guyana.

      Source: Wikipedia 2008


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